1.)State what happens when light energy is passed through any medium and hence quote expressions representing Absorption spectrum and Transmission spectrum
2.)Use suitable diagrams to explain how total internal reflection can be achieved in a step index fibre cable
3.)Given that the refractive indices of core and cladding are 1.6 and 1.5 respectively,calculate the maximum angle of acceptance for the fibre cable
4.)Explain why a pneumatic measurement system is termed as an “intrinsically safe” system.
5.)Explain why the flapper/Nozzle sensor cannot be connected directly on to a prematic transmission line i.e cannot be used directly (on its own) for measurement
6.) i.)Draw and label the basic zener barrier circuit
ii.)Draw the equivalent circuit of the zenner barrier circuit drawn above under fault conditions
7.)Use an idealized Vortex street diagram to describe the principles of operation of a vortex flowmeter
8.)A vortex flowmeter consisting of a rectangular bluff body is used to measure liquif flow rates in the range 0.1 to 1.0^3m per second.Given that pipe diameter=0.15m, Bluff body width=0.015m,strouhal number =0.15; Calculate the range of vortex frequencies.Taje Bluffness coefficient as 1.5
9.)Use a block diagram to explain the operating principles of a cross-correlation flowmeter.Quote all the necessary equations in your answer
10.)Use a suitable diagram to describe a 2 beam infrared gas analyser indicating clearly how the composition of a sample gas can be measured or analysed.Clearly label all components of the diagram.
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