Explain four considerations taken into account by top managers when formulating policies.

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Explain four considerations taken into account by top managers when formulating policies.

1. a) Highlight FOUR planning skills required by effective managers. (4 marks)

b) Explain four considerations taken into account by top managers when formulating policies. (6 marks)

c) i) Differentiate between decision making under risk and decision making under certainity. (6 marks)

ii) State two rules that govern brainstorming as a decision making technique.(6 marks)

d) There has been cases where management by objectives (MBO) has totally failed in organizations. Outline FOUR reasons for such failure. (4 marks)

2. a) Explain the meaning of the following terms as used in organizing:
i. centralization;
ii. accountability;
iii. coordinating. (6 marks)

b) State FOUR functions of the directors of a company. (4 marks)

c) One of the recent approaches to management of industrial organisations is the application of ‘operations research (OR)’ techniques in resolving managerial challenges. (i) Outline the steps followed in this approach. (ii)Highlight FOUR managerial challenges which can be addressed using OR techniques in an industrial organization. (10marks)

 

 

 

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