### One type of signal that is in frequent demand is the sine wave. We could use an op amp in place of a transistor as the gain element in a Wien Bridge oscillator or a Twin-T oscillator, but they have a problem with requiring multiple capacitors and resistors in some odd configurations for setting the frequency of oscillation. Can we do something with analog integrators and inverters to obtain the same result?

July 9, 2017
###### The American Nurse Reflection Paper
July 9, 2017

1.
(a) Sometimes we do not want a linear response from an op amp circuit. For example, what if we want the output voltage to represent the natural logarithm of the input voltage? What can we do for a feedback element to accomplish this? Draw the schematic diagram and explain.
(b) Why is it necessary to connect operational amplifiers so that they invert the output signal even as they add input signals together?

(d) One of the non-linear behaviors that is sometimes required in analog circuits is rectification. Explain the meaning of it?
(e) One common requirement in electronic is to convert signals back and forth between analog and digital. Give an example of a Digital to Analog Conversion circuit diagram hence explain the diagram.
(f) One type of signal that is in frequent demand is the sine wave. We could use an op amp in place of a transistor as the gain element in a Wien Bridge oscillator or a Twin-T oscillator, but they have a problem with requiring multiple capacitors and resistors in some odd configurations for setting the frequency of oscillation. Can we do something with analog integrators and inverters to obtain the same result?
2.
(a)
i. Define what a slew rate (SR) is
ii. The SR in general describes the degradation effect on the high frequency
response of the active amplifier (one with an op amp) near or at the rated maximum
output voltage swing. This effect is generally due to the compensating capacitor and not
to the transistor circuits internal to the op amp to charge. Write a formula for the current required capacitor.
iii. With help of formula in a (ii), give now the formula for SR.
(b) Suppose that an op amp has a maximum output current of 1 mA. If the compensating
capacitor is 1000 pF. Calculate the SR.

(c) Suppose that the input signal to a 741-based unity gain amplifier configuration
is a 20kHz sine wave. What is the largest possible amplitude of the input signal to
avoid distortion due to slewing?

3.
(a) Give six (6) characteristics of ideal operational amplifier.

(c) What is a common-mode Rejection Ration (CMRR)?
Hence give a formula for CMRR.

4.
(a) An op amp has an open loop gain of 106 and if both inputs are earthed, the output voltage is 1v. Determine the output voltage V0 if the op amp is used in the circuit below.

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