Avoiding Patient’s Resistance to Antimicrobial Therapy

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Avoiding Patient’s Resistance to Antimicrobial Therapy

Antimicrobial drugs are prescribed and used by patients to either treat or prevent infections caused by bacteria. Unfortunately, the bacteria change with time in response to the antibiotics and become resistant to the drugs making the antibiotics ineffective in treating the infections. According to WHO, the antimicrobial resistance threatens the health and food security across the world by making the treatment of infections such as pneumonia, salmonellas, and tuberculosis among others harder and increasing medical stays, medical costs and increasing death cases from such infections (World Health Organization, 2018). It is thus important for the health care system to avoid patients developing resistance to antimicrobial therapy in by all possible ways.

Antimicrobial resistance can be avoided in patients in many ways.  Firstly, prudent use of antimicrobials by using them according to the antimicrobial stewardship programs guidelines and data such as pharmacology of the antibiotics can avoid the development of antimicrobial resistance among patients (Lee, Cho, Jeong and Lee, 2013). The effects and mode of use of a drug, diagnostic testing, clinical responses and tests to determine vulnerability to antimicrobial are all aspects that should be considered on patients individual cases prior to the administration of the antimicrobials to ensure the use of the antibiotics do not pose a risk of the patient developing resistance. Secondly, hygiene among health care providers and patients is integral to the prevention of antimicrobial resistance (Caron & Mousa, 2010). Antibiotics-resistant microbes are easily transferred between people especially between patients and healthcare providers or patients and patients. Health caregivers have been identified as significant sources of microbe-resistant bacteria thus the need for the health care provision system to uphold highest hygiene practices. Hygiene requirements according to CDC and SHEA provide that health caregivers should at minimum be dressed in gowns and gloves when attending to patients especially those with bacterial infections. A clean hospital environment is also required given that infections acquired in the hospital are often harder to treat.

Thirdly, antimicrobial résistance can be reduced by relevant bodies reducing clinical trial uncertainties and risks and regulation of feeding of antibiotics on agricultural products (Metz &Shlaes, 2014). Among the causes of patients developing antimicrobial resistance are the compromises and oversight in the approval of new antibiotics and determination of their efficacy in clinical use and excessive release of antibiotics on the environments that creates residue which accumulates on agricultural products.  The Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration have a responsibility to reinforce their respective duties in the environment and drug approval respectively to reduce human exposure to toxic residues and drugs that are not adequately tested thus avoid development of antimicrobial resistance. Different departments and policymakers including ITFAR, NIH, and CDC among others need to collaborate and come together to promote the combating of antibiotics resistance among patients form their different jurisdictions and responsibilities on in promoting health.

In conclusion, avoiding patients from developing antimicrobial resistance requires patients, health care workers, and various bodies to be more vigilant in their roles and practices. The causes of antibiotics resistance spread across different aspects of health care from clinical trials, environmental and public health matters, drug pharmacology and pharmacokinetics and patients individual factors. Therefore, prevention strategies for antimicrobial resistance should be implemented across the areas to ensure efficient avoidance of patient developing antibiotics resistance.





Caron, W. P., & Mousa, S. A. (2010). Prevention strategies for antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review of the literature. Infection and drug resistance3, 25.

Lee, C. R., Cho, I., Jeong, B., & Lee, S. (2013). Strategies to minimize antibiotic resistance. International journal of environmental research and public health10(9), 4274-4305.

Metz, M., & Shlaes, D. M. (2014). Eight more ways to deal with antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy58(8), 4253-4256.

World Health Organization (2018). Antibiotic Resistance. Retrieved on 28 March 2019 from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance