Environmental Health

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Environmental Health

Do you think the United States can accomplish changes in how antibiotics are used in animal agriculture like those seen in Denmark? Why or why not?

The United States cannot accomplish the changes in how antibiotics are used in animal agriculture like those seen in Denmark. Unlike the US, Denmark has a relatively low population that allows the use of natural farming methods in control of pests and diseases. On the other hand, America’s population has continued to grow over the recent past due to numerous immigrants from the Middle East, Asia and some parts of Africa leading to increased demand for food. This, therefore, requires America to adopt the use of antibiotic methods in food production so that enough food can be produced to feed the population. Also, Americans practice international Agricultural trade. Sustainability of the trade requires high productivity which in most cases relies heavily on the use of agricultural chemicals which are known to boost productivity.

What are the main barriers to minimizing or ending antibiotic misuse in animal agriculture in the United States? How could these barriers be addressed?

Several hindrances bar the fights of minimizing the misuse of animal agriculture in the United States. Firstly, the education system is ineffective in training learners in better agricultural practices that are environmentally friendly. This makes the agriculturalists continue adopting the ineffective practices in spite of their knowledge in agricultural aspects. Secondly, the acquisition of jobs by both youth and aged is not guaranteed.Agriculture remains the open option for job seekers who are after raising more revenues from the sector. This makes them adopt the antibiotic methods of food production.

The hindrances could be addressed in different ways. There should be a revision f agricultural curriculum to incorporate aspects of environmental conservation in agricultural practices. This will allow the agricultural students not only to have knowledge and skills in better agricultural practices but also advocates of fighting against the misuse of antibiotics in agricultural practices. Also, the government should create job opportunities in other sectors such as transport, mining, fishery, and sports to reduce a large number of people who depend on agriculture as a source of livelihood.

List the government agencies responsible for the protection of our food and food consumption? Briefly describe what they do.

A number of agencies are involved in protection and consumption of food: Food Safety and Inspection service ensures that the supplied meat, poultry, and egg products are safe for consumption and whether they are labeled and packaged correctly. It also inspects the manufacturing plants to ensure they are legalized and operate in adherence to the policies. The US Food and Drug Administration protect consumers against unsafe and poor labeled products. It regulates all foods other than meat, eggs and poultry products. It also inspects medical products such as drugs and devices to ensure they are safe for use. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collects data on foodborne illness and its outbreak as well as monitoring the effectiveness of management and prevention strategies used in combating the disease. Lastly, the Environmental Protection Agency regulates the use of pesticides by ensuring that they neither harm the environment nor compromise the safety of food.

What are some of the health risks if you follow the theme ‘eat more fish’?

Although fish are beneficial for the nutrient composition, they have a number of health risks that should be considered during their intake. Tuna fish, for instance, has omega -3 fatty acids and very high portions of the protein that are essential for bodybuilding. However, it contains high levels of methylmercury that may cause developmental delays in children, vision problems and lack of coordination, hearing, and speech impaired.

Foodborne illnesses can be caused by…? Make a list of 6 hazards.

Foodborne illnesses are caused by various causes. Biological causes include the presence of bacteria in food, viruses in water and parasites in animals consumed in terms of food. Secondly, food intoxication and infection such as bacteria growth in food could lead to the illness. Also, improper food handling practices such as improper cooling, inadequate cooking and handling of food by an infected person could lead to increased chances of occurrences of foodborne illnesses. Also, other factors such as poor surveillance of food, contaminated utensils, poor hygiene of the kitchen and poor hygiene of the person handling the food could lead to the occurrence of foodborne illness.

Visit this site http://ldh.la.gov/index.cfm/subhome/19 and search for one of your favorite restaurants or one of your interest. What did you find out in relation to their recent food inspections? “Informed decision-makers as food consumers”



Last inspection date: 03/11/2019

Parish: Caddo


Description violence

The inspection process found out that food is not kept in a clean, covered container. WINGS BOWLS NOT COVERED. Also, the inner part of the restaurant is not clean since ceilings and walls are very dusty. THE INNER PARTS NEED CLEANING.

Chapter 20 Buildings and Health: Study Questions

Identify potential health risk in the facility of your employment or studies. This should include building-related Illness and other determinants of indoor air quality.

I am a student and throughout my stay, I have discovered several health risks within the classrooms and offices. Some of the rooms have inadequate ventilation posing a hindrance in air circulation. Secondly, some of the classes and offices have slippery floors that increase the risks of sliding and falling on the floor.

Louisiana is considering passing an indoor air quality act.  What elements should it include?  Please identify elements and then explain why each was selected.

Temperature: when the indoor temperature is too high, there is expansion and increased dilation of small openings in the roof which allow chemicals within the home to leak into the house. These chemicals may result in sniffing, irritability, headache, and fatigue. One will have feelings of fatigue, shivering and low levels of sensation.

Allergens: Increased house temperatures will attract dust mites which contain dead human skin and mold spores that are likely to contaminate foods in the stores.

Carbon dioxide: It is safe when inhaled in small amounts. Intake of carbonated drinks, use dry ice or purchase vehicles that use gasoline, we get exposure to high concentrations of carbon dioxide which could lead to unconsciousness and subsequent death if not acted upon in time.

Chemicals: furniture, fittings and some types of ceilings are made with materials that have high levels of VOCs which are later released into the air we breathe. Such chemicals may cause cancer, respiratory infections, and memory loss.

Humidity: A high moisture level above a certain level (50%) worsens the indoor quality of air leading to the growth of mold particles that could cause irritability and respiratory dysfunctions.


What do you view as the five major approaches we can take to protect health and safety in buildings?

Enhancing safety measures will involve the adoption of control and management strategies. Adequate ventilation of rooms, worksite analysis, establishing the probability of hazards and developing mechanisms to manage the hazards are the possible measures. Also, adequate training of architectures on ways of designing safe buildings will be an appropriate preventive measure towards the attainment of safe buildings.

People with disabilities face special challenges in buildings and may need various accommodations to ensure access, health, and safety. What is the concept of universal design, and how does it address these challenges? What are three specific accommodations that may be needed, and why would each be necessary?

Universal design is an approach used in architectural works that put more emphasis on designing buildings that can be used by all populations. It recommends that buildings should be developed without the need to have specialized tools to be used by people with physical disabilities.it is an inclusive approach of designing structures that ensure no discrimination is created in terms of access to certain buildings that could be providing essential services. The Universal design, therefore, ensures that all people regardless of their age, gender, and physical abilities have equal access to and use of public facilities.

Various accommodations are needed to ensure the attainment of the universal design goal. Firstly, public streets should have adequate lighting to allow people who are visually impaired to use them at ease. Secondly, a high building should have both step and spiral stairs to allow both abled and disabled individuals to access the premises. Thirdly, public services should be provided in ground offices as opposed to high floors to give equal access to all people seeking the services.

Examine your own home taking a public health perspective. Can you identify at least three hazards? How would you correct them?

Three hazards at my home are:

Inadequate ventilation: My home is surrounded by small forests which block natural light from penetrating in the house. I have inserted a number of lighting bulbs to supply sufficient light in the house.

My house has slippery tiles that pose a health risk. I have spread mats in common areas such as the sitting room and sleeping area.

Briefly characterize the major industrial employer in your area in which the workplace and safety risks need to be closely monitored. 

The major employer in my area is the Willis-Knighton Medical Center. It is a hospital facility that emphasizes safety standards to avoid health challenges. Healthcare professionals are directly involved in the provision of healthcare to communities.  The services are categorized into facility setting, outreach , and promotional services.  The healthcare center is engaged in the identification, management, and prevention of foodborne diseases, health hazards. It also gives recommendations on some of the possible accommodations to be employed in a home setting such as drainage, lighting, and food preparatory technics that are appropriate in controlling ailments.

What should be the keys to the prevention of occupational injuries and illnesses?

There are various key prevention and occupation strategies for injuries and illnesses. Firstly, individuals need to be trained in occupational safety. Also, some of the individuals do not have adequate access to medical care upon injuries and illnesses due to financial inadequacies. There is, therefore, need for the government to provide a comprehensive health cover to protect such individuals. Also, equips for fighting disease outbreak and disaster should be installed in all areas to facilitate quick response upon the occurrence of hazards and disasters.

I work as a part-time employee in an educational institution. The safety conditions in my workplace have not been met. Though the institution has warning systems in place to respond to a disaster before it occurs, the individuals do not have adequate training on the precautionary safety standards. The whole institution relies on the few officers from the security department who are not adequate to offer safety precautions.

Visit http://www.osha.gov/about.html, and characterize the role, scope and mission of OSHA.  Why can’t OSHA ‘do it all’?

OSHA is a body in the US mandated with the responsibility of ensuring safety standards and occupational health. It regulates conditions at public places to ensure that safety conditions are met. It also trains people on safety precautions and also carries out outreach programs to community members. The mission of OSHA is to have a safe society that is free from hazards.

Please look at each item of clothing you are now wearing. In what countries were your clothes manufactured? If you wanted to assess the working conditions of the people who made your clothes, how would you collect that information?

All the clothes I am wearing were manufactured in Germany with a company by the name ACT Textiles. Collecting information about the company will involve me looking at their website for contacts of the personnel within the company. This will aid me in getting to understand the conditions under which my clothes were made.