Psychology Questions

Critical Thinking in Psychology
April 23, 2024
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
April 23, 2024
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Psychology Questions

Question 1

Psychologists are required to adhere to certain moral principles and rules of conduct set out in the American Psychological Association. These are sets of guidelines aimed at protecting research participants and the psychologists.  Some of the ethical implications associated with psychological research include; informed consent; psychological investigators should obtain the consent of participants expected to be involved in the research. The participants should be made aware of the purpose of the research, the risks, and discomforts associated with the research; the procedures involved in the research and the benefit of the research to the individual participant and the society.

Another critical ethical implication associated with psychological research is debriefing. Psychological researchers should discuss with the participant about the procedure and the findings of the research. In the case of deception by the researcher, the participant should be informed and given reasons why. Questions from the participants should also be answered honestly and wholesomely. Debriefing is essential as it helps the participant to leave the experimental situation in the same frame of mind as they had entered. Psychological researchers should ensure that the participants understand debriefing

Confidentiality is one of the ethical implications associated with psychological research. Psychologists should ensure that the participants and the data acquired from them are kept anonymous. The disclosure of such information should only be done with the participant’s consent. It is also important for psychological researchers to ensure that the participants are protected from physical or mental harm. Special care should also be given to vulnerable participants taking part in the research. These steps will help in the protection of human subjects in psychological research.

Question 2

Numerous theories have explained the psychosocial development throughout the lifespan of a human being. Examples of these theories are; Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory and Erick Erickson’s psychosocial theory.  Feud argues that a person’s personality consists of three interworking parts: the Id, the ego and the superego. Freud also presents the three levels of consciousness which are the conscious, the preconscious and the unconscious level of consciousness. According to Erick, human characteristics come in different aspects that eventually defines what a person will become. Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development are trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame/ doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair.

The two theories focus on the importance of early experiences in a person’s development. Both Freud and Erikson center the different stages of development on a form of conflict. They both argue that when the conflict is not resolved, emotional distress occurs which may lead to mental illness. Both theorists warn that childhood trauma may distort the development of personality.

Despite the two theories centering the stages of development on conflicts, the nature of the conflict differs. Freud’s conflict is centered around sex. For instance, the first stage of development which occurs from birth to one year, Freud call this stage the oral stage while Erikson called this stage the trust versus mistrust stage. According to Erikson, at this stage, children learn to either trust or mistrust their caregivers. At the next stage of development (age 1 to 3 years), Freud calls this stage the anal stage of development where the child becomes able to control the bladder and bowel movement. Erikson, on the other hand, calls this stage the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage. He argues that at this stage, children would develop a sense of independence and self-sufficiency by controlling activities such as eating, toilet training, and talking. Generally, in Erikson’s theory, conflict is resolved when a person learns to love and care for others. On the other hand, in Freud’s theory, conflict is resolved when a person receives adequate gratification during the early stages of development.

Question 3

Howard Gardner, a Harvard psychologist, proposed the Theory of Multiple Intelligences for the explanation and measurement of intelligence. Gardner argues that people have many kinds of intelligence including interpersonal, intrapersonal, spatial-visual, musical, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalistic and linguistic-verbal.

Some of the strengths of this theory are that it aids in the explanation of the variety of individual difference in different types of mental performance. This theory is also based on clinical, developmental, case study and educational evidence. According to Gardner, the different types of intelligence helps to point out the areas of need and individual strengths in individuals. For instance, an individual may be strong in musical and visual-spatial intelligence but at the same time weak in logical-mathematical intelligence.

Gardner theory has also faced a lot of criticism owing to the weaknesses in the theory. For instance, most psychologists and educators argue that Gardner’s multiple intelligence is cognitively based. The different types of intelligence cannot be measured using any specific tests. There is no empirical evidence available for Gardner’s theory. The theory also fails in explaining the disparity in intelligence found in different individuals. Some of Gardner’s intelligence has been controversial on whether they are intelligences or just abilities.

Work cited

American Psychological Association. (2002). American Psychological Association ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from