Public Health Paper

Stress and Health
April 23, 2024
Hume’s Argument on Suicide
April 23, 2024
Show all

Public Health Paper

Question 1.

  1. Define Historical Redlining and Social determinants of health.

Social determinants of health get defined as social and economic conditions that shape group and individual differences based on health statuses. These conditions are where an individual grows, gets born, lives, works, and eventually ages. The named circumstances get influenced through the allocation of money, power, and resources that are available at local, national, and global levels. Historical Redlining is a process whereby some institutions and banks refuse to give mortgages or even offer rates that are worse to its customers in specific neighborhoods basing on ethnic and racial composition. This situation is one clear example of a traditional type of racism in history. The relationship that exists between these two phenomena involves the unequal distribution of health statuses in society.

  1. The social determinants of health associated with historical Redlining include education, employment, wealth and income, and housing. These social determinants get traced back to historical redlining since they are, therefore, unequally distributed to individuals who face racial discrimination.
  2. Housing and education are more valuable because an individual who lacks proper training and shelter faces a state of mental torture that affects them generally.
  3. The social determinants of health that are more remedial by public health include health services, genetics, and biology. These determinants are important because public health amenities need to offer proper healthcare to individuals and come up with appropriate strategies that curb specific causal agents.
  4. Social environment and physical environment are the hardest social health determinants that a public health amenity will find it hard to change. These determinants are hard to shape by any organization; thus, it becomes hard for public health to develop.

Question 2

  1. Quality gets defined as the basic standard of something measured against similar categories of tings. The two metrics that are, however, used to assess quality include customer satisfaction and defect ratio. Coverage is an extent in which a thing deals with another idea, and it gets evaluated by statement and function coverage. Coordination means the organization of various elements of complex activity or body to enable sufficient workability. Coordination gets assessed through domain and perspective. Cost is a specific amount required to obtain or purchase something. The cost/price gets evaluated through cost overruns and the waiting time average. The choice is the ability to choose or select between two possibilities. The choice/opportunity gets assessed through diagnostics and benchmark metrics. The context is circumstances that make up an event setting or an idea that gets fully understood. Context or meaning measured in financial and performance metrics.
  2. Quality and Coverage are the most critical domains that would effectively lead to the achievement of the four-mentioned health systems. I have chosen these two domains, more specifically because they act as an umbrella that achieves the listed health systems. Quality assesses the need to provide services that bring out the best in health services rendered to patients. Coverage attracts customer satisfaction in health systems and achieves all required attributes.

Question 3

  1. Defining the problems- Before addressing injury problems, it is prudent to know what the problem is, its location, and the person it affects. Identifying risks and Protective factors-It is never enough to effectively know a specific injury type affects a group of certain people in a particular area. It’s always important to understand why it happens. What specific factors place individuals at significant risks for such injuries?
  2. Conversely, which factors protect individuals from the injury? Researches are, however, conducted to answer these questions effectively. Development and Test Preventions Strategies- focusing on this step, knowledge is put into action. By using the obtained data from researches, strategies get developed to prevent specific injuries problems. These strategies are, therefore, implemented in communities that face these injuries. Assured Widespread Adoptions- in this particular step, the obtained knowledge is shared. It provides funding or expert consultations to allow communities to come up with strategies that are, therefore, successful.
  3. Defining the problems- This step would effectively know what gender violence entails. Identifying risks and Protective factors- this step helps us understand why gender violence happens. Development and Test Preventions Strategies- knowledge about gender-based violence are effectively incorporated, and the obtained data leads to the development of strategies that prevent these acts of violence. Assured Widespread Adoptions- the knowledge gained concerning gender violence is put in place to come up with community-based strategies that are successful in demolishing this problem.
  4. Chlamydia screenings; USPSTF effectively recommends that testing should get carried out in women who are sexually active aged 24 years and who face higher chances of infections. Cervical Cancer screenings; USPSTF effectively recommends for cancer screening every three years in women between 21-29 years. Several approaches used include approaches based on evidence and recommendations prevention.

Question 4

  1. Allostatic Load (AL) is defined as the body’s wearing and tearing that accumulates when an individual gets exposed to chronic or repeated diseases. Adverse Childhoods Experience (ACE) are traumatic situations that have adverse, long-lasting effects on well-being and health.
  2. The relationship between AL and ACE shows a strongly linked association mediated by socioeconomic statuses and health-based behaviors.
  3. Body systems impacted by Allostatic Load include; endocrine system- this system gets affected in such a way that increased stress levels result in increasedCorticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRH) levels that activate HPA axes. HPA modulates inflammatory actions in the body. Prolonged stresses lead to reduced cortisol levels during morning hours and increased levels in the afternoon. These changes eventually increase sugar levels. The Nervous system increased levels of stress cause shortenings on dendrites in neurons. This shortening causes attention to decrease. Immune system-increased stress levels result in elevations of inflammations.
  4. The consequences include; muscle weaknesses, diabetes, the rapid gaining of weight, and easily bruised skin.
  5. The childhood experiences include; abuse of substances, household dysfunctions, and mental illnesses.

Question 6

  • This particular framework is essential to all professionals working under the public health sector since it provides easy ways of shaping public health mediations, focusing on the impacts they have over the public.
  • The fifth level is called counseling and education. The US public health sector relies on this step to effectively offer to counsel and educate the public on matters concerning opioid deaths. Through proper counseling and public education, the rates of opioid deaths get reduced significantly.
  • The fourth level is clinical intervention (s). This tier talks about every ongoing clinical-based intervention. In this case, the responses are to prevent opioid deaths among the US population. With these interventions at hand, these deaths get reduced significantly through various methods.
  • The third level is Long-Lasting Protection Interventions. This particular level could guide in decision making on the reduction of opioid deaths in the US through the implementation of interventions that do not need clinical care.
  • The second level is Changing Contexts to Encourage a Healthy Decision(s). This particular level could guide decision making based on reducing opioid deaths in the US by changing the environmental contexts by making healthy options. These options get changed regardless of education, income, service provisions, or other societal-based factors. This change improves the reduction of opioid deaths in the US.
  • The first step is Socioeconomic Factors. This tier advocates for changes in socioeconomic determinants e.g., reduction of poverty and improve education. Lack of proper socioeconomic determinants subjects individuals to environmental-based hazards that are hard to control. By developing these factors, the US reduces opioid deaths significantly.

Question 9

  1. My thinking based on my public health oath has significantly evolved throughout the semester through the incorporation of new ideas that render me the ability to advance in my career as a public health professional.
  2. Some important topics that appealed to my interests and needs include; food safety, physical activities, obesity, and nutrition, HIV, stroke, and heart diseases.
  3. The information on social determinants of health influenced my general interest to know more about fitness and how it gets affected by social determinants. This phenomenon made it easier for me to engage in studying public health and significant in it as my career.
  4. The creation of transparency at all organizational levels is an essential lesson in leadership that I learned from Giant Jenga. Individuals must practice transparency at all costs to promote growth and truthfulness.