Mass Media and Democracy

Mediation Opening Statement
April 18, 2024
Deloitte MBA
April 18, 2024
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Mass Media and Democracy

Mass Media and Democracy covers a wide range of topics on information and communication. The issue deals with the sharing of information, exercising the freedom of expression, and conducting of communication. Media democracy strives at strengthening the media outreach to the people through broadcasting and participation in media platforms (Blumler, Jay, & Stephen, 111). The role of mass media in today’s world is to reflect on matters of social reality to a wide range and ensuring that the public receives information. For example, the people right to access news which empowers them to freedom of speech and expression. This paper will focus on a section of mass media and democracy theme referred to as journalism.


Journalism refers to the compilation and distribution of news and similar observations through printing and electronic media. The prints can be in the form of newspapers, books, and magazines. Likewise, information transmitted through electronic media, such as social networks, radio, TV, internet, blogs, websites, and emails. Journalism enables one to exercise the freedom of information and delivering relevant news to the public.

Elements of journalism

Obligation to truth

The whole aspect of being a journalist is to reveal the truth. Acquiring the truth is not through philosophical sense but by raving reliable and accurate facts. Journalist assembles and verifies facts before conveying to the public. The profession requires one to be accurate in terms of the information communicated to the public. The sources and the means they get the info the best assessment. Journalism upholds the virtue of truthfulness and the desire for knowing the exact facts of events. Journalists use investigative techniques to come up with supporting facts to reveal information and make the public have a glimpse of the situation around them.

Loyalty to the citizens

The priority of journalism work is the public. The journalist interest is conveying true and enough information to the people’s attention. In our modern world, the credibility of the news is what attracts a large audience that following up on the report in their countries and beyond. Citizens remain loyal to their country mostly because they receive adequate information that they require. For example, when the citizens watch or read about their countries the feeling of patriotism increases.


The reliability of information is not as a result of intimidation by the power or compromising it by self-interest. The driving factor should be the spirit of freedom, intellectual curiosity, and having an open beyond all clusters of life. For example ethnicity, religion, social class, and race. External influence will tamper with the credibility of the news, and that entails the importance of depending on one’s conscience.


Journalists have to verify the information before conveying it to the public. There are no standard measures of verifying information; every journalist has a specific means of assessing and testing the credibility of information. The methods to check the info should be the objective, and they also have to be transparent. Journalism’s ways of verification are different from other forms of related contexts such as propaganda and advertisements. In this case, there should be proof of anything conveyed to the audience and justifications that are solid.

Independent monitoring of power

Journalism acts as a watchdog to the operations of the government. Also, journalists mostly are the voice of the voiceless citizens. Journalism questions those in power if their actions do not yield to the expectations of the citizens. The roles are not for personal vendetta of upsetting those in authorities but for steering for actual effects and monitoring the government. Additionally, Journalists ensure transparency in the execution of power.

Journalism is a medium for public criticism and concession

Different platforms provide a media that acts as a public domain and that the public can contribute their information. The platforms offer ways of exercising laws and the right for freedom of speech (Aitamurto, Tanja & Anita, 697). Journalism weighs the different views and interests of the society and reasonably tries to address them. It discusses the public discussions by considering the common grounds, the accuracy, and the truthfulness. Journalism carries public talks based on certain privileges through news, acquired from societies. The opportunities involve researches, development, and information about subsidies for products. The rights are not perpetual, but their growth as a result of the need for a plentiful supply of information on the matter. The predicament of the issue is under the assumption that the pressure will push journalists to supply society and government with sufficient quality information.

Journalism strives for relevance and making the information interesting

Journalism is a profession that aims and provides information meant to attract audiences (Deuze, Mark & Tamara, 165). The journalist provides information of interest that their audience wants to know and need. The quality and level of a media platform depend on the information it conveys and the means it engages with its audience. All journalists should have captivating and exciting methods of transmitting data to attract an audience. Journalism should have a variety of areas of coverage such as politics and disaster affecting the society.

Comprehensiveness, proportionality, and exercise of personal conscience

Journalism is a way people navigate different places without physical presence. To do this, the information it conveys needs to be clear, understandable and truthful. The news should be precise and straightforward with a distinct approach that the public will be able to process and assess. A journalist only exercises the profession on sections or matters that are confident (Deuze, Mark, & Tamara, 166). One’s moral responsibility is essential in this case as it shows a sense of responsibility and someone who is following the ethics. Also, the news should not be offensive to others and that the journalist should question the extensiveness of a matter before conveying it to the public. The report has to be fair and accurate to avoid misunderstandings. Also, employees of media pursue a topic as a matter of self-interest and speaking their mind without jeopardizing the reputation of the organization. Ethics guide the code of conduct, and it enables one to respect boundaries by observing the limits.

Entitling the citizens with rights and responsibilities to the news

Citizens have the right to respond to information through writing and speaking out. Also, people have the right express their opinions on social media. The right to get information belongs to every citizen. One can assess the report and decide that it is not believable and that there is a proof or another explanation. Limiting or ignoring the opinions of the public is a way of depriving their right to freedom of expression. Information is everywhere and any time and that entails that sharing of views is a significant move to attain accurate news. The public deserves to know what is going on in their day-to-day lives without limiting them from any communication.

Code Ethics for a Journalist

Respecting Human Rights

When pursuing a case, a journalist should presume innocence and give the benefit of the doubt on the issues at hand. A reporter has to respect the private life of a person, and it is permutable under circumstances of public interest (Deuze, Mark, and Tamara, 182). Also, a press officer has to bear in mind the legitimacy of the benefits of minority groups by protecting their identity in matters of crime. Under an extreme circumstance of the public interest, the press needs to preserve their legitimacy whether as a victim or a perpetrator even if championing for democracy. All journalists should not discriminate anyone in all circumstances. For examples, discrimination against sex, ethnicity, race, religion, disability, and age is not allowed. Preserving one’s reputation is a moral responsibility and a virtue to hold.

Observing the rules of editing and protecting the sources


Opinions differ from actual information and journalist needs to learn how to separate both. Before conveying the final verdict, reporters verify the facts, and thus correct information is published. Hence, the truth is releasing without reasonable doubts. The involvement of the whole and the organized group will play a significant part in making sure everything is right. Reporters have a responsibility to preserve and protect the identity of the person giving the data (Stein, 169). Revealing their identity could be jeopardy to their lives, physical health, or their integrity, resulting in damage to the worth of the data. There could be an exception in instances where witnessing is a requirement and the need for a testimony to justify the facts.

 Information gathering and status preservation

A journalist should search for the facts in a legal, open, and transparent way by using investigative techniques. These investigative techniques have to be included in the final piece of publishing as it will be in the interest of the public (Stein, 170). Violation of ethical values is not acceptable, and it can lead to the lowering of the status of a journalist. The latter happens in instances doing something for personal benefits or doing a favor to a third party by accepting gifts or other forms of nature. Abuse of the status can result in revocation of a license to conduct press work and inclining of a one’s career. In the recommendation, a practitioner should not have involvement in matters of politics and economic development.

Value Independence and Right to Reply

The profession requires one to rely on their conscience and judgments should not be under the influence of outside forces. A practitioner should not be under intimidations that might influence the truthfulness of a matter. The intimidations can be political or personal interests of a person or people trying to do away with the case. A member of the press has a right to reply in instances where there is a need for justification or even offering apologies at situations necessary. A requirement to correct an error is also acceptable, and it shows an act of responsibility and accountability.

Principles and Democratic Nature of Journalism

Accuracy, truth, and Independence

One of the primary functions for journalism is to reveal the truth though it is not always a guarantee but having the facts right is a step to that (Aitamurto, Tanja & Anita, 695). Accuracy entails coming up with relevant facts to support the case. One should follow the inner conscience without having affiliations of any kind that will jeopardize the credibility of the information. The intervention of special interests is against the principles of journalism.

Fairness, objectivity Virtue of Humanity and Accountability

A reporter should give balance to both sides of the piece or the story without favoring either of the parties. The impartial nature will build trust and confidence to the audience making it credible (Blumler, Jay, and Stephen 120). What to publish should not be offensive in any way in terms of words or even images. It should consider the ethical values of others and not go beyond the boundaries. It is a profession, and one needs to take responsibility for actions and being sincere when there is an error. Remedying unfairness is a way to re-write what it is already to reach the audience in the forms of communication. For example television, newspapers, and radio.

Types of journalism

News Journalism

Delivering news is the primary form of journalism and the most known way of conveyance by media stations. Furthermore, it can be in either a visual or spoken form depending on the event in question and the audience to involve. The type of journalism collects data about a game, a person, or an occurrence that is in the interest of the public. The news has to be clear, with facts, accurate, and precise with straightforward facts.

Political Journalism

The branch deals with political issues and their influence on society. Also, it does this by observing political figures, legislative bodies such as the government, campaigns or events involving politics, and the entire system (Broersma, Marcel, & Todd, 89). Democracy relies significantly on this as it can be potential in making changes that will affect developments. Similarly, it plays as a watchdog and informs the public on the endeavors of the government.

Business Journalism

Business journalism deals with reporting changes in the economy and writing about financial activities happening in society. Additionally, it informs the people about places and issues on business activities. For example technology, workplaces, job opportunities, investments, and personal finance. Also, it reports on aspects of the public consumer, economic ups and downs, successes, keeping track of a business, and in cases of launching new goods or services to the market.


In conclusion, journalism is a branch of mass media and democracy theme that focuses on informing the public of day-to-day endeavors. The types of journalism include business, political, and new journalism. Like all professions, it has ethical values that journalists follow. Examples are: respecting the human rights, protecting the identity their sources, gathering information to justify the facts, and value independence. The journalist has code ethics that identifies the rules they follow. Journalism covers different kind of events for instance; the business sector, basic coverage of people’s daily lives, and in the political side to act as a watchdog for the public and their interest. Journalism should spearhead for truthfulness in the society, by being loyal to it and ensuring that the citizens are practicing their right for information and freedom of expression.




Works cited

Aitamurto, Tanja, and Anita Varma. “The Constructive Role of Journalism: Contentious metadiscourse on constructive journalism and solutions journalism.” Journalism Practice 12.6 (2018): 695-713.

Broersma, Marcel, and Todd Graham. “Tipping the balance of power: Social media and the transformation of political journalism.” (2016): 89-103.

Blumler, Jay G., and Stephen Coleman. “Democracy and the media—revisited.” Javnost-The Public 22.2 (2015): 111-128.

Deuze, Mark, and Tamara Witschge. “Beyond journalism: Theorizing the transformation of journalism.” Journalism 19.2 (2018): 165-181.

Stein, Andi. “Journalism and Ethics.” Real-World Media Ethics. Focal Press, 2016. 169-183.